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Ford Escape 2020-2024 Service Manual / Body and Paint / Body and Paint / Supplemental Restraint System / Description and Operation - Airbag and Seatbelt Pretensioner Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) - System Operation and Component Description

Ford Escape: Supplemental Restraint System / Description and Operation - Airbag and Seatbelt Pretensioner Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) - System Operation and Component Description

System Operation

System Diagram - Supplemental Restraint System (SRS)


Item Description
1 RCM
2 HS-CAN2
3 Front Passenger Seat Position Sensor
4 HS-CAN1
5 HS-CAN3
6 Driver Seatbelt Buckle Sensor
7 Front Passenger Seatbelt Buckle Sensor
8 Passenger Front Impact Severity Sensor
9 Passenger Door Impact Severity Sensor
10 Driver Door Impact Severity Sensor
11 Driver C-Pillar Impact Severity Sensor
12 Passenger C-Pillar Impact Severity Sensor
13 Ignition Switch
14 BCM
15 OCSM
16 Driver Seat Position Sensor
17 APIM
18 Driver Front Impact Severity Sensor
19 GWM
20 IPC
21 BECMB

Item Description
1 Passenger Seatbelt Retractor Pretensioner
2 Passenger Seatbelt Adaptive Load Limiter
3 BCM
4 Passenger Second Row Seat Side Airbag
5 Driver Second Row Seat Side Airbag
6 Passenger Seatbelt Anchor Pretensioner
7 Driver Seatbelt Anchor Pretensioner
8 Driver Seatbelt Retractor Pretensioner
9 Passenger Side Air Curtain
10 Driver Side Air Curtain
11 Passenger Knee Airbag
12 Driver Knee Airbag
13 Passenger Airbag Canister Vent
14 Passenger Airbag (Stages 1 and 2)
15 Driver Airbag (Stages 1 and 2)
16 RCM
17 Passenger Airbag Deactivation (PAD) Indicator
18 Passenger Side Airbag
19 Driver Side Airbag

Network Message Chart - Supplemental Restraint System (SRS)

  Module Network Input Messages - RCM


Broadcast Message Originating Module Message Purpose
eCall confirmation   APIM Used for SYNC® 911 Assist™ operation. Indicates whether eCall notification is in progress after an airbag deployment.
Ignition status   BCM Qualifies certain faults during RCM self-diagnostics.
Airbag warning indicator status   IPC Confirms airbag warning indicator status to the RCM .
OCS vehicle calibration data   OCSM Shares application-specific data for comparison purposes to make sure the correct OCSM and RCM are installed.
OCS fault status   OCSM Indicates an OCS fault, if present.
OCS sensor data   OCSM OCS sensor readings.
OCS serial number   OCSM OCSM serial number.
Restraints module power status   BECMB Communicates BECMB fault status to the RCM .
Vehicle configuration data   BCM Verifies vehicle configuration data.

System Diagram - Occupant Classification System (OCS)


Item Description
1 Belt Tension Sensor (BTS)
2 OCSM
3 Passenger Seatbelt Buckle Sensor
4 Passenger Airbag (Stages 1 and 2)
5 RCM
6 PAD Indicator

Network Message Chart - Occupant Classification System (OCS)

  Module Network Input Messages


Broadcast Message Originating Module Message Purpose
Front passenger seatbelt buckle status   RCM Determines passenger airbag disable status.
RCM serial number   RCM RCM serial number.

System Diagram - Extended Power Module [BECMB]


Item Description
1 PAD Indicator
2 BECMB
3 PCM
4 BCM
5 RCM
6 OCSM

Network Message Chart - Extended Power Module [BECMB]

  Module Network Input Messages - BECMB


Broadcast Message Originating Module Message Purpose
Ignition status   BCM Determines when it is appropriate to provide power to the SRS .
Remote start status   BCM Determines when it is appropriate to provide power to the SRS .
Vehicle speed   PCM Determines when it is appropriate to provide power to the SRS .

Supplemental Restraint System

The SRS is controlled by the RCM , which continually monitors various inputs. When these inputs indicate a front, side, or rollover crash, the RCM deploys some components based upon the severity of the crash and the sensor inputs.

Although some deployable devices may not have activated for all occupants during a crash, it does not mean that something is wrong with the SRS .

The RCM performs a self-test of the complete SRS during each startup. In addition to the self-test at start up, the RCM continually monitors all of the SRS components and circuitry for correct operation.

Airbag Warning Indicator

The airbag warning indicator:

  • proves out by lighting for 6 seconds and then turning off.
  • flashes and/or illuminates based on the message the IPC receives from the RCM .
  • illuminates if the IPC does not receive a message from the RCM .

When the ignition is turned on, the IPC illuminates the airbag warning indicator continuously for 6 seconds. If the SRS is free of faults, the airbag warning indicator turns off and remains off. If a SRS fault exists, the airbag warning indicator illuminates and remains illuminated for the rest of the ignition cycle. The RCM communicates with the IPC via the HS-CAN . The IPC illuminates the airbag warning indicator based on messaging from the RCM . The IPC also illuminates the airbag warning indicator if there is no communication between the RCM and IPC .

Event Notification Signal

The event notification feature provides other vehicle subsystems with information pertaining to SRS deployment or fuel cutoff status. When an impact occurs which exceeds a pre-determined threshold, the RCM sends a signal on a dedicated circuit to the BCM .

When the BCM receives the crash signal input, it initiates fuel cutoff to disable the fuel system.

After the fuel system is disabled, the vehicle can be re-started after carrying out the following steps:

  • Turn the ignition on and wait 10 seconds.
  • Turn the ignition off.
  • Turn the ignition on.
  • Turn the ignition off.
  • Turn the ignition on.

Occupant Classification System (OCS)

The OCS classifies the size of the front passenger seat occupant and provides this information to the RCM .

Pressure is applied to the OCS bladder when weight of any occupant or object on the front passenger seat is present. The pressure is then transferred through a tube and sensed by the OCS pressure sensor within the OCSM . The OCSM sends information concerning the weight of any occupant or object on the front passenger seat to the RCM via the HS-CAN2 . The RCM uses this information to determine if the passenger airbag or side airbag needs to be deployed in the event of a crash.

The OCS is also used for operation of the passenger Belt-Minder®. For information about Belt-Minder®,
Refer to: Seatbelt Systems - System Operation and Component Description (501-20A Seatbelt Systems, Description and Operation).

To deactivate or reactivate the passenger Belt-Minder® feature,
Refer to: Seatbelt Minder Deactivating/Activating (413-01 Instrumentation, Message Center and Warning Chimes, General Procedures).

Passenger Airbag Deactivation (PAD) Indicator

The RCM controls the PAD indicator through a direct, hardwired connection, based on network messsages provided by the OCSM . The PAD indicator illuminates to indicate the passenger airbag is disabled or enabled.

The RCM briefly activates the PAD indicator to prove out the indicator function and confirm proper functional operation of the PAD indicator to the front occupants.

The following table indicates the passenger airbag and PAD indicator status based on the size of the front passenger occupant.

Occupant Size Passenger Seatbelt Buckle Status Passenger Airbag Status PAD Indicator Status
Empty Buckled or Unbuckled Disabled OFF: Lit
ON: Unlit
Small Buckled or Unbuckled Disabled OFF: Lit
ON: Unlit
Large Buckled or Unbuckled Enabled OFF: Unlit
ON: Lit

Airbag Second Stage Deployment Check

The driver and passenger front airbags each have 2 deployment stages. After an airbag deployment, it is possible that stage 1 has deployed and stage 2 has not. If a front airbag has deployed, the front airbag must be remotely deployed using the appropriate airbag disposal procedure to make sure both stages have deployed. For information on driver airbag and/or passenger airbag remote deployment,
Refer to: Pyrotechnic Device Disposal (501-20B Supplemental Restraint System, General Procedures).

SOS Post-Crash Alert System™

The SOS Post-Crash Alert System™ is controlled by the BCM , but initiated by the RCM .

When a deployment or fuel cutoff event occurs, the RCM sends a message on the HS-CAN2 (via the GWM ) to the BCM . The BCM flashes the turn signal lamps and sounds the horn (except when 911 Assist™ is active) until it is turned off. The system can be turned off 10 seconds after a crash event by pressing the hazard switch, pressing the UNLOCK or PANIC button on the RKE transmitter or by cycling the ignition as shown:

  • Turn the ignition OFF.
  • Turn the ignition ON.
  • Turn the ignition OFF.
  • Turn the ignition ON.

The BCM also unlocks the doors and illuminates the courtesy lamps after a crash event.

Vehicle Spin-out Detection

When internal RCM sensors detect the vehicle has spun out, the BCM activates the hazard warning flashers and displays a message in the IPC to indicate the hazard warning flashers are activated due to the spin-out.

Extended Power Module [BECMB]

The BECMB provides system voltage to the RCM and OCSM when the ignition is on. Additionally, the BECMB is designed to ensure the RCM and OCSM remain powered on if the ignition is turned off while the vehicle is moving at a speed greater than 4 km/h (2.5 mph).

If the ignition is turned off while the vehicle is travelling at a speed above 4 km/h (2.5 mph), the BECMB maintains system voltage on the RCM and OCSM power supply circuits. Once the vehicle speed drops below the threshold while the ignition is off, the BECMB powers down the RCM and OCSM . If the vehicle speed rises above the threshold again, the BECMB does not reactivate the power supply to the RCM and OCSM . They remain off until the ignition is turned on again.

If a vehicle is parked with the ignition off, the BECMB does not provide power to the RCM and OCSM . If the vehicle begins to move while the ignition is still off, the BECMB does not power the RCM or OCSM .

When the vehicle has been started using the remote start feature (if equipped), the ignition status is off, but the BECMB powers the RCM in order to detect a collision and disable the fuel pump, if necessary.

Component Description

Belt Tension Sensor (BTS)

The Belt Tension Sensor (BTS) is a 3-wire Hall-effect sensor that is part of the front passenger seatbelt buckle and cannot be serviced separately from the front passenger seatbelt buckle assembly.

Clockspring

The clockspring allows for continuous electrical connections between the driver airbag and the RCM . A spiral-wound cable wraps around the center of the clockspring and as the steering wheel is turned, the spiral cable inside expands or contracts in diameter as the 2 halves of the clockspring turn.

Driver Airbag

The driver airbag is a dual-stage airbag. Upon receiving a flow of current, it deploys at 1 of 2 different rates, depending upon vehicle impact severity and sensor input.

Driver Knee Airbag

The driver knee airbag is part of the steering column opening trim panel and deploys upon receiving current flow from the RCM .

Extended Power Module [BECMB]

The BECMB supplies system voltage to the RCM and OCSM based on HS-CAN1 inputs and the ignition input.

The BECMB requires PMI when being replaced. Refer to the diagnostic scan tool instructions to carry out PMI .

Front Impact Severity Sensor

The front impact severity sensors measure acceleration (g-rate) and are hardwired to the RCM . Mounting position and orientation is critical for correct operation of the front impact severity sensors.

Occupant Classification System (OCS)

The OCS is found only on the front passenger seat. The OCS classifies the size of the front passenger seat occupant.

The OCS is comprised of a silicone gel-filled bladder mounted between the seat cushion foam and pan, an OCSM which is mounted to the seat frame, and a pressure sensor that is internal to the OCSM . Pressure is applied to the OCS bladder when weight of any occupant or object on the front passenger seat is present. The pressure is then transferred through a tube and sensed by the OCS pressure sensor and OCSM . The components of an OCS bladder system (bladder, tube, and OCSM with integrated pressure sensor) are serviced as an assembly, and the OCS bladder system is serviced as a kit with the seat cushion and seat heater mat (if applicable).

The OCSM requires PMI when being replaced. Refer to the diagnostic scan tool instructions to carry out PMI .

Passenger Airbag

The passenger airbag is a dual-stage airbag which deploys at 1 of 2 different rates depending upon vehicle impact severity and sensor input.

Passenger Airbag Canister Vent

The passenger airbag canister vent is a deployable device that is part of the passenger airbag. Canister venting controls the inflation rate of the passenger airbag and the escape rate of gases from the airbag. The canister vent cannot be serviced separately from the passenger airbag.

Passenger Airbag Deactivation (PAD) Indicator

The PAD indicator is a LED which is hardwired to the RCM .

Restraints Control Module (RCM)

NOTE: This vehicle may be equipped with SYNC® which contains the 911 Assist™ option. Refer to the Owner's Literature for information about this feature.

The RCM monitors various sensor inputs and uses that data for controlling SRS outputs such as the event notification function and airbag deployment.

The RCM includes a backup power supply. This feature provides sufficient backup power to deploy the airbags in the event the ignition circuit is lost or damaged during impact. The backup power supply depletes its stored energy approximately one minute after power and/or ground has been removed from the RCM .

The RCM requires PMI when being replaced. Refer to the diagnostic scan tool instructions to carry out PMI .

Seatbelt Buckle Sensor

The seatbelt buckles contain integrated Hall-effect sensors, which are serviced with the seatbelt buckle.

Seat Position Sensor

The seat position sensor is a Hall-effect sensor which indicates the position of the seat along the seat track. The sensor detects the presence of a shunt bracket on the track, indicating the seat has moved past a certain point in the adjustment range.

Side Impact Sensor - Front Door

The front door side impact sensors monitor air pressure within the door in order to detect side impact crashes. They are hardwired to the RCM . Mounting position and orientation is critical for correct operation of the front door side impact sensors.

Side Impact Sensor - Second Row

The second row side impact sensors measure acceleration (g-rate), and are hardwired to the RCM . Mounting position and orientation is critical for correct operation of the second row side impact sensors.

Rear Seat Side Airbag (if equipped)

The rear seat side airbag is a single-stage airbag which is designed to provide protection for the seat occupant's torso. It deploys upon receipt of current flow and is attached to the outboard side of each rear seat.

The presence of a rear seat side airbag can be confirmed by a small fabric tag on the outboard seam of the rear seat backrest cover with the word "AIRBAG" on it, as well as wiring for the side airbag leading into the outboard rear seat backrest. Checking for the rear seat side airbag wiring may require folding forward the rear seat cushion and/or folding down the backrest.

Seatbelt Anchor and Pretensioner

The seatbelt anchor pretensioner is a pyrotechnic device that removes slack from the seatbelts when deployed. One is included as part of each front row outboard seatbelt assembly and cannot be serviced separately.

To diagnose any pretensioner Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs),
Refer to: Airbag Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) (501-20B Supplemental Restraint System, Diagnosis and Testing).

Seatbelt Retractor and Adaptive Load Limiter

The front passenger seatbelt retractor is equipped with the adaptive load limiting feature that works in conjunction with the seatbelt buckle pretensioner to control the tension of the front passenger seatbelt in the event of a crash. The front passenger seatbelt retractor is also referred to as the seatbelt load limiter.

To diagnose any pretensioner Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs),
Refer to: Airbag Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) (501-20B Supplemental Restraint System, Diagnosis and Testing).

For any concerns regarding seatbelt retractor function,
Refer to: Seatbelt Systems (501-20A Seatbelt Systems, Diagnosis and Testing).

Seatbelt Retractor and Pretensioner

The seatbelt retractor and pretensioner is a pyrotechnic device that removes slack from the seatbelts when deployed. The retractor and pretensioner are serviced together with the front row outboard seatbelt assembly.

To diagnose any pretensioner Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs),
Refer to: Airbag Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) (501-20B Supplemental Restraint System, Diagnosis and Testing).

For any concerns regarding seatbelt retractor function,
Refer to: Seatbelt Systems (501-20A Seatbelt Systems, Diagnosis and Testing).

Side Curtain Airbag

The side curtain airbags are single-stage airbags designed to provide head and upper body protection to the vehicle occupant(s) during side impact crashes.

Side Airbag

The side airbag is a single-stage airbag which is designed to provide protection for the seat occupant's torso. It deploys upon receipt of current flow and is attached to the outboard side of each front seat. It is used in conjunction with the side air curtain.

    Description and Operation - Airbag and Seatbelt Pretensioner Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) - Overview

    Overview The RCM continually receives and monitors inputs from the OCSM and various other hard-wired switches and sensors. If the RCM detects a sudden vehicle deceleration and/or lateral deceleration based on the information received from the various sensors and determines that deployment is necessary, it applies voltage and current to deploy the appropriate SRS components...

    Diagnosis and Testing - Airbag Supplemental Restraint System (SRS)

    Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) Chart Diagnostics in this manual assume a certain skill level and knowledge of Ford-specific diagnostic practices.REFER to: Diagnostic Methods (100-00 General Information, Description and Operation)...

    Other information:

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