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Ford Escape 2020-2022 Service Manual / Powertrain / Engine / Engine Cooling / Description and Operation - Engine Cooling - System Operation and Component Description

Ford Escape: Engine Cooling / Description and Operation - Engine Cooling - System Operation and Component Description

System Operation

Engine coolant flows primarily from the engine to the radiator circuit and back to the coolant pump. Coolant is sent from the coolant pump through the engine block and cylinder heads. A separate circuit from the engine also feeds the heater core and exhaust heat exchanger with coolant. The coolant pump is electric and controlled by the PCM . The coolant thermostat is a control valve actuated by coolant temperature. When the thermostat is closed, coolant flow bypasses the radiator circuit and returns to the coolant pump. When the thermostat is opened, coolant flows through the radiator circuit to transfer engine-generated heat to the outside air.

The degas bottle holds surplus coolant and removes air from the cooling system. It also allows for coolant expansion and system pressurization, replenishes coolant to the cooling system and serves as the location for service fill.

The thermostat monitor is a function of the PCM and is designed to verify correct thermostat operation. The monitor executes once per drive cycle and has a monitor run duration of 300-800 seconds. If a malfunction occurs, DTC P0125 or P0128 sets, and the MIL illuminates.

Fail Safe Cooling

A strategy called Fail Safe Cooling is built into the PCM that will control the engine if it starts to overheat.

Stage 1 of the strategy commences if the engine starts to overheat. The CHT sensor transmits a signal to the PCM , which moves the temperature gauge pointer into the red zone.

If the engine is not switched off and the temperature continues to rise, the Powertrain Check Lamp is illuminated. This indicates to the driver that the engine is approaching critical limits and should be stopped. At this point DTC P1285 is set in the PCM which can be retrieved using a scan tool.

Stage 2 of the strategy commences if the lamp and temperature gauge are ignored by the driver. The PCM will start to control the engine by cutting out 2 cylinders and restricting the RPM to below 3,000 RPM. Simultaneously the MIL illuminates. This indicates that long term engine damage can occur and vehicle emissions will be affected. At this point DTC P1299 is set in the PCM which can be retrieved using a scan tool.

Air is drawn into the deactivated cylinders. This helps to control the temperature of the engine internal components. The deactivated cylinders are alternated to allow even cooling of all the cylinders.

NOTE: If the driver is using a high percentage of throttle travel (for example, an overtaking maneuver) when the PCM starts engine deactivation (Stage 2), the deactivation will be delayed for 10 seconds.

NOTE: After 2-cylinder operation has begun, the engine will not revert to 4-cylinder operation, even if the temperature should fall, until the ignition is switched off and then on again.

NOTE: The MIL can only be extinguished by using a scan tool after the fault has been rectified and the DTC cleared.

Stage 3 of the strategy will commence if the engine temperature continues to rise. This results in the engine being totally disabled before major engine damage or seizure occurs. The Powertrain Check Lamp will begin to flash, indicating to the driver that the engine will be switched off after 30 seconds. This allows the driver time to choose a suitable parking place.

Thermostat Monitor

The thermostat monitors identify a thermostat concern.

During a cold start, when the thermostat should be closed, the thermostat monitor uses intake air temperature, engine speed, and engine load to predict the engine coolant temperature. Once the predicted temperature has exceeded a target temperature for a length of time, the actual engine coolant temperature is compared to its required threshold. This threshold is 11°C (20°F) below the thermostat regulating temperature. If the engine coolant temperature exceeds this threshold, the thermostat is functioning correctly. If the engine coolant temperature is too low, the thermostat may be stuck open and a DTC sets. This monitor is executed once per drive cycle during a cold start and has a run duration of 300 seconds.

During a cold start, when the thermostat should be closed, the heavy duty thermostat monitor uses intake air temperature, engine speed, and engine load to predict the engine coolant temperature. Once the predicted temperature has exceeded a target temperature for a length of time, the actual engine coolant temperature is compared to its required threshold. This threshold is 11°C (20°F) below the thermostat regulating temperature. If the engine coolant temperature exceeds this threshold, the thermostat is functioning correctly. If the engine coolant temperature is too low, the thermostat may be stuck open and a DTC sets. This monitor is executed during a cold start. After passing the cold start monitor conditions the actual engine coolant temperature is continuously compared to the thermostat regulating temperature threshold. If measured engine coolant temperature drops below the thermostat regulating temperature threshold the cold start monitor is enabled again and the timer resets. If the engine coolant temperature is too low, the thermostat may be stuck open and a DTC sets.

Component Description

Transmission Fluid Cooler Coolant Control Valve (If Equipped)

The transmission fluid cooler coolant control valve is an electrically controlled solenoid to redirect the flow of engine coolant. This electrically controllable valve is normally closed when not energized. The valve receives a fused 12V B+ supply when the ignition is in the run or start position and is grounded by the PCM via a low side driver. The PCM monitors the solenoid and circuits for electrical faults and sets an appropriate DTC .

Cooling Fan

The PCM monitors certain parameters (such as engine coolant temperature, vehicle speed, A/C ON/OFF status, A/C pressure) to determine engine cooling fan needs.

The PCM controls the fan speed and operation using a duty cycle output on the FCV circuit. The fan controller (located at or integral to the engine cooling fan assembly) receives the FCV command and operates the cooling fan at the speed requested (by varying the power applied to the fan motor).

The fan controller is able to detect certain failure modes within the fan motors. Under certain failure modes, such as a motor that is drawing excessive current, the fan controller shuts the fans off. Fan motor concerns may not set a specific DTC . With the fan motor disconnected from the fan controller, voltage may not be present at the fan controller.

Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) Sensor

The CHT sensor is a thermistor device in which resistance changes with the temperature. The resistance of a thermistor decreases as temperature increases, and the resistance increases as the temperature decreases. The varying resistance affects the voltage drop across the sensor pins and provides electrical signals to the PCM corresponding to temperature.

Thermistor type sensors are considered passive sensors. A passive sensor is connected to a voltage divider network so varying the resistance of the passive sensor causes a variation in total current flow. Voltage that is dropped across a fixed resistor (pull up resistor) in series with the sensor resistor determines the voltage signal at the PCM . This voltage signal is equal to the reference voltage minus the voltage drop across the fixed resistor.

On a typical vehicle, the CHT sensor is located in the cylinder head and and the CHT sensor is located in the exhaust manifold. The CHT sensor provides complete engine temperature information and is used to infer coolant temperature. If the CHT sensor conveys an overheating condition to the PCM , the PCM initiates a fail safe cooling strategy based on information from the PCM sensor. A cooling system concern, such as low coolant or coolant loss, could cause an overheating condition. As a result, damage to major engine components could occur. Using both the CHT sensor and fail safe cooling strategy, the PCM prevents damage by allowing air cooling of the engine and limp home capability. For additional information, refer to Fail-Safe Cooling Strategy in this section.

Exhaust Heat Exchanger

The exhaust heat exchanger is installed into the muffler and tailpipe assembly and is used to heat engine coolant during engine warm up. The heat exchanger transfers heat from the exhaust to the engine coolant.

    Description and Operation - Engine Cooling - Component Location

    NOTE: Coolant temperature will vary with ambient temperature and load. Temperatures shown are for ambient temperature of 38° C (100° F). Red arrows indicate a temperature over 90° C (194° F), Orange arrows indicate a temperature of approximately 90° C (194° F), Blue arrows indicate a temperature below 90° C (194° F)...

    Diagnosis and Testing - Cooling Fan Control

    Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) Chart Diagnostics in this manual assume a certain skill level and knowledge of Ford-specific diagnostic practices.REFER to: Diagnostic Methods (100-00 General Information, Description and Operation)...

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